BackgroundThe Australian Department of Health and Ageing (Department) launched the National Tobacco Campaign (NTC) - More Targeted Approach – Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) component in 2011. Following Phase 1 of the campaign, which ran in 2011, Phase 2 of the campaign was launched in the week commencing 29 January 2012 and ran until the end of May 2012.
Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the campaign were aimed at people aged 18-40 years from cultural groups who were known to have a high prevalence of tobacco use, including people from Arabic, Chinese, Korean, Pacific Islander, Spanish, and Vietnamese backgrounds.
The communication objectives of the campaign were to:
- increase and reinforce awareness of the range of health harms associated with smoking; and
- generate and reinforce intentions among current smokers to quit now.
The Department commissioned ORIMA Research to undertake quantitative research to evaluate the effectiveness of Phase 2 of the campaign amongst the following CALD audiences: Arabic, Cantonese, Korean, Mandarin, Pacific Islanders, Spanish, and Vietnamese. The same CALD audiences were included in ORIMA’s evaluation of Phase 1 of the campaign.
MethodologyThe evaluation research comprised a face-to-face survey of n=50 interviews with individuals from each of the above mentioned cultural/linguistic backgrounds aged 18-40 years, for a total of 350 interviews. The sample was allocated across Sydney, Melbourne, and Brisbane based on the relative proportion of each cultural/linguistic group residing in each of these three states, according to the 2006 Census of Population and Housing.
The research approach consisted of initial recruitment of respondents from a variety of sources, including Migrant Resource Centres, ethno-specific community organisations, community service announcements on SBS radio, and street intercept interviewing in areas with high known concentrations of the groups in question. Potential respondents were pre-screened for eligibility based on smoking status and having a preference for communicating or consuming media in one of the relevant non-English languages. As the Pacific Islander campaign material was in English (and therefore screening by language was not appropriate), eligibility for this group was instead based on self-identification with the Pacific Islander community. After being screened, eligible individuals were interviewed face-to-face. When necessary, interpreting services were provided by either the community organisation where the interviews were held, by a trusted friend or family member accompanying the respondent or by bilingual interviewers.
Recruitment and pre-screening of respondents took place throughout late May 2011 and June 2012, with survey fieldwork being undertaken between 11 June 2012 and 15 July 2012.
B. Behaviours, Attitudes and AwarenessThe majority (83%, compared with 79% in 2011) of smokers intended to quit smoking, mainly within the next six months. The leading motivations for quitting or attempting to quit were health factors, together with financial cost and family-related reasons.
Six in ten (61%, up from 56% in 2011) respondents acknowledged that smoking had lowered their quality of life and health. They also tended to perceive the damage from their own smoking was greater to themselves than to other people. Recent quitters tended to perceive less harm towards others from their smoking than smokers. The majority of respondents overall recognised the possibility of becoming ill in the future from smoking. More than nine in ten respondents (93%, consistent with 92% in 2011) were at least ‘a little worried’ about becoming ill in the future.
Respondents generally held anti-smoking and pro-quitting attitudes, recognising the harms of smoking and the benefits of quitting. Perceived public disapproval of smoking increased significantly between 2011 and 2012, with 52% agreeing in 2011 compared to 65% in 2012. The majority (84%) disagreed that it was easy to quit smoking.
Perceived benefits of quitting were generally consistent across 2011 and 2012, with around 8 in 10 respondents recognising that quitting smoking would result in improved health and fitness. Additionally, saving money was an increasingly popular benefit, being mentioned by 61% of respondents in 2011 and 70% in 2012. Respondents’ awareness of the health effects of smoking was consistently high, with significant increases observed for ‘Trouble breathing’ and ‘Heart disease/heart attack’.
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C. Campaign Awareness and Impact
Recall of Campaign AdvertisementsSpontaneous recall of general smoking advertisements decreased between 2011 and 2012, with around four in five respondents (82%, lower than 89% in 2011) recalling such advertisements. There was, however, a significant increase in awareness of the CALD ‘Health Benefits’ execution – this was driven by an increase in awareness of the print advertisement (1% in 2011 compared to 9% in 2012).
With prompting, CALD ‘Health Benefits’ radio and print advertisements were recalled by a greater proportion of respondents in 2012 than in 2011. The audience reach was highest for in-language radio advertising, with more than a half (53%, up from 43% in 2011) of respondents indicating exposure. Overall, the CALD ‘Health Benefits’ advertisements were recognised by a greater majority in 2012 than in 2011: Two thirds (67%, up from 57% in 2011) of respondents were exposed to at least one type of CALD ‘Health Benefits’ advertisement.
Unprompted recall of the ‘Family’ or ‘Money’ print advertisements was very low, with only one respondent mentioning the ‘Money’ ad and none recalling the ‘Family’ ad. Prompted recognition was also low overall for the CALD ‘Family’ (11%) and ‘Money’ print advertisements (7%).
Overall, two thirds (70%; compared to 57% in 2011) of respondents recognised at least one element of the 2012 CALD campaign (‘Health Benefits’ advertisements, or ‘Money’ or ‘Family’ advertisements).
Key Message Take-OutThe CALD ‘Health Benefits’ print and radio advertisements achieved successful cut-through for the key message that quitting smoking has many health benefits, which was recalled (unprompted) by 62% of respondents exposed to the ads.
Around half of the respondents who had seen the ‘Family’ print advertisement derived the following messages (unprompted):
- If you quit smoking you will live a healthier and longer life with your family (50%);
- Quit for your family (45%); and
- Your smoking affects your family too (45%)
With prompting, overall the vast majority (at least 96%) of respondents exposed to any CALD advertisements recalled the key messages. Furthermore, the following prompted message take-outs increased between 2011 and 2012:
- the day you stop smoking, your body starts to repair itself (96%, up from 92% in 2011); and
- every cigarette you don’t smoke is doing you good (96%, up from 90% in 2011).
Opinions of Print Campaign AdvertisementRespondents’ opinions of the CALD ‘Health Benefits’, ‘Family’ and ‘Money’ print advertisements suggested a high level of creative quality. Nearly all respondents who had seen the ads reported that they were easy to understand, believable and informative (to a lesser extent in relation to the ‘Money’ advertisement).
Around four fifths (81%) of respondents felt that the ‘Health Benefits’ and ‘Money’ print advertisements (78%) related to them, whereas the ‘Family’ (63%) advertisement was seen to be less relevant.
Campaign InfluenceThe CALD ‘Health Benefits’ advertisements were effective in delivering a call-to-action. Nearly two in five (39%, lower than 50% in 2011) respondents exposed to any of the CALD campaign advertisements, reported taking action towards quitting / reducing smoking as a result of this exposure. Almost one in five (19%) smokers who had been exposed to the advertisements indicated that they had cut down as a result of seeing / hearing the advertisements. Two in five (40%) recent quitters exposed to the advertisements indicated that they had quit smoking as a result of seeing/ hearing the advertisements.
The leading actions taken by smokers as a result of exposure to the campaign were to reduce the amount of cigarettes they smoked, to discuss smoking and health with their partner, family or friends, and to stop smoking.
The advertisements were also effective in delivering an impetus for future actions. Just over two fifths (43%, down from 51% in 2011) of respondents exposed to CALD advertising intended to take actions in the next month as a result of seeing the advertisements. Within the next month, close to one in three (29%) of smokers who had been exposed to the advertisements planned to reduce the amount of cigarettes they smoke, while 7% planned to quit smoking. About one in seven (15%) recent quitters planned to encourage their family or friends to quit, while 10% planned to remain quit.
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D. ConclusionsThe 2012 NTC CALD component achieved a significantly higher reach (70% of respondents recognised at least one of the ads) than in 2011 (57%), largely reflecting greater recall of the Health Benefits print and radio ads.
As was the case in 2011, key message take-out was solid in the 2012 campaign, particularly for the ‘Health Benefits’ advertisements. Opinions of the campaign were also positive, with a large majority of respondents finding the print advertisements believable, easy to understand, and engaging.
The 2012 CALD campaign delivered a solid call to action among those exposed (albeit somewhat weaker than in 2011), prompting actions leading to quitting, plans to quit in the near future, encouraging others to quit.
In comparison with 2011, the prevalence of action taking was somewhat lower among smokers (37%, compared with 47% in 2011) and considerably so among recent quitters (48%, compared with 76%). The latter influenced the result relating to the overall prevalence of action taking given the significantly higher proportion of recent quitters in the 2012 survey sample.
The 2012 CALD campaign material has been effective in delivering key messages to members of the target audience exposed to it, and has encouraged a significant proportion of these individuals to either quit smoking, reduce the amount they smoke or to consider doing either of these over the next month.
Page last reviewed: 05 March 2014